Large area fabrication of graphene nanoribbons by wetting transparency-assisted block copolymer lithographyby Katsumata, R; Yogeesh, MN ; Wong, HL; Zhou, SX ; Sirard, SM; Huang, T; Piner, RD; Li, W; Lee, AL; Carlson, MC; Maher, MJ; Akinwande, D; Ellison, CJ
Patterning graphene into nanoribbons (graphene nanoribbons, GNR) allows for tunability in the emerging fields of plasmonic devices in the mid-infrared and terahertz regime. However, the fabrication processes of GNR arrays for plasmonic devices often include a low-throughput electron beam lithography step that cannot be easily scaled to large areas. In this study, we developed a GNR fabrication method using block copolymer (BCP) lithography that takes advantage of the wetting transparency of graphene. One major advantage of this method is that the self-assembled domains of the polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) BCP are oriented perpendicularly directly on top of the graphene where they can later serve as an etch mask. Large area (cm(2) scale, 3 mu m x 3 gm defect-free area) 13-51 nm wide GNR arrays were successfully fabricated using this scalable protocol. This wetting transparency-assisted GNR fabrication method could be useful for high-throughput production of various plasmonic devices, including biosensors, and photodetectors. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.