Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical productionby Hal Alper and Jie Sun
A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.